'''Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury''' (; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts '''Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury''', was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy
. His 1651 book ''Leviathan (book)|Leviathan
'' established social contract
theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy.
Though on rational grounds a champion of Absolute monarchy|absolutism for the sovereign
, Hobbes also developed some of the fundamentals of European classical liberalism|liberal thought
: the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society
and the state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly...